Presidential Visit To Jandarma Special Forces Joeak 607

Question

Jandarma Genel Komutanligi also known as Gendarmerie General Command is a service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The department is mainly in charge of ensuring that there is public order in areas that are not easily accessible by police officers like the rural areas and also providing internal security and general border control and other duties assigned to it by the law. This unit is an integral part of the Turkish military and is a national armed security and law enforcement force.

The Gendarmerie is in charge of the Askeri inzibat provost service as well as policing armed and Special Forces brigades called Jandarma Ozel Harekat Komutanligi and Jandarma ozel Asayis Komuntaligi. Since its part of the Turkish armed forces, the general commander of this unit is under the authority of Turkish general staff, but he can contribute to matters pertaining training and education and on issues relating to performance of the safety and public order duties in connection with the Armed Forces and the Ministry of the Interior respectively. The minister of the interior is his/her boss.

Jamal Genel originated from Ottoman Empire, military enforcement organization called “Subasi”. Subasi offered security and safety services, although before it, there was a similar force called “Surta” that existed during the medieval Seljuq Empire.

History of the Gendarmerie

In 1826, the Asakri-Muntazama-iMansure, the Janissary corps of the Ottoman was abolished. Later on in 1834, a similar force called Asakir-I Redfire was established to provide security services and maintain law and order in Anatolia and some parts of the province of Rumelia. The term Gendarmerie was used often in the assignment decrees after the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839. The year after, the Gendarmerie was founded although the exact dates are yet to be known.

After the Turkish war which took place in 1877-1878, the then Turkish prime minister, Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring in officers from Britain and France to help establish a new law enforcement organization. The year 1908, after the Young Turk, is when the Gendarmerie achieved its success. The next year, people started associating it with the ministry of war, and hence the name was changed to Gendarmerie General Command. The units continued to perform their regular duties that is, to offer internal security and they also participated in the national defense at various fronts since they were part of the armed forces.

The Advancement

Although the Gendarmerie offered the services, it was not a legal unit. However, in 1930 it was legalized and in 1939 three groups were formed as part of it. That is Fixed, Mobile and Gendarmerie raining units. The general command of this military force was assigned duties of protecting the borders, coast and territorial waters as well as fighting smuggling. These duties had been in the past carried out by Gumruk Umum Kumandanligi. In 1957 and 1961, there was an establishment of this unit’s training force and the establishment of the regional commands respectively. Since then, there were laws created to assign the duties and responsibilities to different people of the unit including to the Coast Guard Command and the unit at large. In 1993, Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara. Since the beginning of the Syrian civil war, around 310 civilians have been killed by the Turkish Gendarmerie at the Syrian-Turkish Border.

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